People of Medieval Scotland
1093 - 1371

Volume 5/

Volume 5/ H-numbers were created exclusively for documents given the special status of ‘ERA’ (English royal administration) in the database. These documents relate to the exercise of English royal power in Scotland, often over military matters, during the period of 1291 to 1314. For a more detailed description of these documents, please see below.

The series are as follows:

5/1/ERA documents issued by King Edward I
5/2/ERA documents issued by King Edward II
5/3/ERA documents issued by other people


‘English Royal Administration’ documents are those documents that are not straightforwardly Scottish in nature, but have been included in the database because of their importance. With the outbreak of war in 1296, especially, the number of English administrative records that pertain to Scotland or that were issued in Scotland skyrocketed; for instance, instructions for the delivery of victuals, correspondence between English captains concerning campaigns and wardrobe accounts. Many of these were issued in Scotland, meaning the issuers of those documents were residing in Scotland at the time. Capturing this in the database is important and therefore these documents have been included. Those that were not issued in Scotland but were related to events or people in Scotland are equally important to our understanding of the period and therefore have also been included in this category. ERA material only includes documents dated after 10 June 1291 (when Edward I is recognised as overlord of Scotland) and does NOT include protections or safe-conducts unless dated in Scotland.

Two types of documents have been categorised as ERA:

1)       Documents issued in Scotland, or documents relating to Scotland. Any persons mentioned in the document (including unnamed persons) are given the role of ‘Undefined’. No translations, original language, or relationships are given. Titles are only given if they are ‘Scottish’ titles (e.g. earl of Atholl, sheriff of Edinburgh, etc.).

2)       Documents concerning Scottish prisoners in England (with the exception of John Balliol and his son, Edward). These are categorised as ‘ERA (Prisoners)’. The same rules as above apply.


Multiple transactions in Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland

In CDS documents where the editor, Joseph Bain, has included numerous entries (or in our terminology, ‘transactions’), the transactions are grouped by Place-date and dates are entered manually into each transaction.


E.g. CDS, ii, no. 635: Various letters of protections, etc.

Alexander de Balliol, chamberlain of Scotland, appoints two attorneys till Christmas next. Berwick-upon-Tweed, 10 June 1292

Robert Bruce, senior, in Scotland appoints John de Burley and Master Adam of Crookdaik his attorneys for two years. Berwick-upon-Tweed 24 June 1292

Alexander of Argyll in Scotland, appoints Philip de Lorne and William Markefilli attorneys for two years. Berwick-upon-Tweed. 10 July 1292

Alexander of Argyll has licence for his men and merchants to trade in Ireland, provided they are not outlaws or banished men of the king’s realm. Berwick-upon-Tweed, 11 July 1292

Angus, son of Donald and Alexander his son, have licence to trade in Ireland. Berwick-upon-Tweed, 11 July 1292

The abbot and convent of Dundrennan in Galloway have a protection in Ireland for five years. Berwick-upon-Tweed, 11 July 1292

William de Batteford in the king’s service in Scotland, has a protection for two years. Berwick-upon-Tweed, 17 July 1292.

This will be entered as ONE document in the database because they are all dated at Berwick, however, each transaction will be given its proper date.


E.g., CDS, ii, no. 535: (Excerpts)

The Abbot of Alnwick setting out for his general chapter at Premontré has a protection until the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary next. Coldingham in Scotland 6 July 1291

The king requests the bishop of London to institute Master William of Greenfield, his clerk, as first presentee to the church of Parva Lanfare in his diocese. Thurston in Scotland 6 July 1291

The abbot of Newminster, setting out for his general chapter at Citeaux appoints two attorneys. Haddington in Scotland 8 July 1291

The king gives Gilbert Sikelfot of Southore freedom for three years from assizes and juries. Edinburgh Castle in Scotland 10 July 1291

These will be entered as SEPARATE documents (numbering a, b, c, etc.) in the database because they have different place dates.